2007 Cabernet Sauvignon

 Amount 100 pounds of fresh grapes
 Cost $1.10 per pound
 Grower Purchased via MainBrew, Hillsboro Oregon
 Area Eastern Washington
 Date Picked
 9/15/2007 or really early 9/16/2007
 Date Received
 9/16/2007 - 10:45 am


General Notes
- High BRIX: 26.5, otherwise preliminary numbers look great. 
- Potential alcohol based on BRIX reading is ~14.8% (MODIFIED: LAB 16.7%)


General Plans

- Soak on skins for 12 hours prior to inoculating whil bringing up to temperature.
- Yeast: ICVD80 (bought at mainbrew) - supposed to handle 16% alcohol at 28C or lower. (82F).  Should be ok for
   this high BRIX wine. Supposed to highlight nice tannins and complexity.
- BRIX are high - going to try to make a relativly big red - probably will try extended maceration - but will taste at end
   of primary ferm to determine.
- Because of high BRIX, add ~5% distilled water based on anticipated 7 gallons of pressed wine volume.  This will
   lower the BRIX slightly.
- Ferment with 0.75 ounces of light toast french oak chips.
- Add some more light toast French oak chips after fermentation is complete. (after second racking)


Day 1 [Sunday - Sept 16th 2007]
- 10:45 am: crushed 100# cab s.  Added 1/4 tsp per 5gal of SO2 (sulfite) at crush.

- 11:30 am: placed fermenter in garage.  Garage temp around 73 degrees F. Placed two 2x4's under the fermenter to keep fermenter off the cement floor which is too cold.  Put lid on fermenter.

- 12:00 pm: mixed must in fermenter to ensure any juice samples taken are somewhat accurate.

- 12:00 pm: took sample for lab.  Put in fridge. (note that you need to tell the lab that you cooled the sample - if not, they will not heat it and some/much of tartaric acid may have precipitated - TA will show lower that it really is if this happens)


- 12:45 pm: tested must:

 Brix degrees 26.5
 pH ----- 3.36
 TA g/100ml 0.70


- 12:45 pm: covered fermenter to let sit for a bit.  Fermenter at 64 degrees F.
- 6:30 pm: garage temp now 70 degrees F, turning on the heater to raise a few degrees - 
  trying to warm up the must.
- 7:00 pm: fermenter temperature 69 degrees F
- 8:30 pm: tested must 

 pH-----  3.52

    Wow - in 8 hours it went up 0.16 on the pH scale.

- 11:45 pm: mixed must
- 11:45 pm: took sample for lab tomorrow and another for home PH test
- 11:45 pm: added 2.5 tsp DAP (yeast nutrient) - mixed in
- 11:45 pm: added 0.75 ounces light toasted French oak chips - mixed in
- 11:45 pm: inoculated with ISVC80 yeast strain

- 11:45 pm: ambient temperature: 75 degrees F
- 11:45 pm: fermentor temperature: 70 degrees F

- 12:00 am: tested must

 pH----- 3.55 

    Hopefully this has topped off for now - will likely rise a touch at pressing as
    well - would like to stay under 3.6 if possible.


Day 2 [Monday - Sept 17th 2007]
- 7:30 am: checked fermentation - still small bubbles, but not much at all yet.  With ear near grapes, no noise (usually here popping of bubble if real activity even if you don't see them)

- 7:30 am: took samples (2) to lab for testing

Chemistry Panel - ETS - McMinnville
Taken 9/17/2007 - this sample was taken 1 hour after crush - then refrigerated (need to tell them that is was refrigerated for TA/PH tests)

 Brix degrees 26.4
 L-malic Acid
 g/100ml 0.376
 Tartaric Acid
 g/100ml 0.892
 Alpha-Amino Componds
 mg/L 89
 pH ----- 3.47
 Ammonia mg/L 124
 Titratable Acidity (TA)
 g/100ml 0.85
 Potassiuim mg/L 2760
 Glucose + Fructose
 g/100ml 28.1
 Potential Ethanol (OIV)
 % vol
 Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen
 mg/L (as N)

Chem Analysis Notes
1. PH is slightly higher per their test than my orignal sample taken at same time. But not too much: [+0.11]
2. TA is higher than my original sample taken at same time. [+0.15]
3. BRIX is right on the nose for what I calculated.
4. potential ethanol is REALLY high - crap.  From the normal BRIX table this is only really 15.1 - but they list as 16.7.  Need to call and find out how they measure.  This
    could be a problem becuase the yeast I innoculated with only ferments to 16%.  That would leave us with an off-dry wine.  May need to add some water during fermentation.
    Will find out tomorrow.
5. Malic acid is normal : 0.376 g/100ml.  This means that if we initiate MLF, we will drop TA by ~0.188 (half -> CO2, half -> lactic acid)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Chemistry Panel - ETS - McMinnville
Taken 9/17/2007 - this sample was taken 12 hours after crush - then refridgereated (need to tell them that is was refridgereated for TA/PH tests)

 pH -----3.58
 Titratable Acidity
g/100ml 0.80

Chem Analysis Notes
1. PH increased by 0.11 in the first 12 hours.  This is normal.
2. TA has dropped by 0.5 in the first 12 hours.
3. Hopefully this ratio does not continue of a 2x1 for PHxTA increase/drop.  That would put us high on PH - but what can you do - we need to get the TA down - naturally.
    This might involve MLF if needed - consider cold stabilization as well.
4. If TA stays around .75 - 0.8 when ferm is near complete - consider MLF - from numbers above it would drop us to a nice range for TA.  Might slam the PH though - but what can you do.
5. Other option would be to cold stabilize - but I doubt that it would drop the TA enough - normal drop is ~0.05 unless there is a ton of tartaric to start with.  I have the number for
    the tartaric - but I am not sure if 0.892 is a lot or normal.

- 6:30 pm: bubbles starting to make noise and be visible - fermentation is starting slowly but it is going.
- 6:30 pm: ambient temp: 75F, fermenter temp: 73F

Daily Todos
1. Plan to check TA in second half of fermentation.  Try to decide if we have enough room to start MLF.  Depends mostly on TA - but if PH continues to rise, might not want to do it.


Day 3 [Tuesday - Sept 18th 2007]
- 7:45 am: Checked fermentation - still starting slowly, but seems slightly more than last night.  definitly no cap, but can still here bubbles breaking and see many bubbles on the surface.
- 7:45 am: a little concerned about fermentation taking so long to start... maybe it is the combo of yeast selection and temp.  Ambient temp in the garage fell last night to 70 degrees even with the heater on all night.
- 11:00 pm: notice small bubbles pockets while looking through side of fermenter (plastic).  Fermentation is going at all levels of the must - not just the top.  This is good.  If I am going to add water - I should do it now.  Ferm is going strong enough now to not mess it up by mixing in water.

- 11:00 pm: small cap has formed, see todo's below - completed both.

- 11:15 pm: punched down the cap

- 11:30 pm: fermentor temp: 73F, ambient temp: 74F.

Daily Todos
1. Make sure that fermentation starts today - check in a lunch time.  Keep the ambient temp at
    75 degrees if possible.  HIgh temp early should be ok - even if ferm starts all the suddenly
    quickly - just want to keep it under 82F later in fermentation as the alcohol level rises due to
    the yeast.  Should be good to 16%.

    DONE - Fermentation started - small cap has formed.

2. Plan to add ~5% water by volume as measured by anticipated volume post-press (should be
    7 gallons).  Don't measure this on total volume (9 gallons)

    DONE - Added 37 oz distilled water (+4.45%).  Mixed in thouroughly.

Calculation based on 6.5 gallons of anticipated pressed wine. (based on what I got out of my 2007 Merlot - both this and the Merlot seem to have smallish berries which means a high ratio of skins to wine.  Therefore using 6.5 instead of 7 gallons as guide to add distilled water.

6.5 gallons wine x 128oz = 832 oz
37oz / 832 oz = 4.45% addition.

I will test PH and TA tomorrow to see if I need to make a tartaric acid addition.

Guesses on TA, PH, and potential alcohol - how they will be affected?
a) TA should drop by 4.45% right away.  This is because distilled water has TA of 0.0.  If TA was at recently 0.80 g/100ml, it will now be at: Formula = 0.80 * 0.955 = 0.76 g/100ml.  So TA might drop by about 0.04 g/100ml.

b) pH should go up by a fractional percentage.  My distilled water tested out at 4.52 pH.   If PH was around 3.6.  Formula = (3.6 x 0.955) + (4.52 x 0.045) = 3.64.  So pH might go up by about 0.04.

Here is a photo of the pH test of my distilled water (I calibrated first):

c) Potential Alcohol should drop by 4.45%.  16.7% x .955 = 15.9%.


Day 4 [Wednesday - Sept 19th 2007]
- 8:45 am: cap temp tested with thermometer: 78F.  Ambient Temp: 75F.

- 8:45 am: cap is starting to grow... fermentation will most likely start to peak tomorrow at this rate.

- 8:45 am: punched down the cap and mixed lightly.

- 12:00 pm: raised ambient temperature with space heater to attempt to get must temperature to 85F for 1/2 day at least.
- 8:00 pm: ambient temperature 79F. (I raised it with space heater over lunch)
- 8:00 pm: cap temperature 84F.
- 8:00 pm: punched down the cap
- 8:00 pm: added 2.5 tsp DAP and mixed thouroghly  (this is the second of two additions).  Fermentation has been heavily under way all day, so I figure that it is about time for the second batch.
- 8:00 pm: extracted sample for PH test.

 pH----- 3.73 

I believe that this test was incorrect - I calibrated as I always do (EACH TIME YOU USE YOU METER - EVEN IF JUST CALIBRATED IT A FEW HOURS EARLIER).  But - if you look down in the notes - the pH has continued to test consistantly at around 3.62.  Not sure what happened here.

- 8:00 pm: lowering ambient temperature back down to low 70's to cool off the fermentation

Daily Todos
1. Test TA and PH to see where we are at now that fermentation has started and we have added water to lower potential alcohol.
DONE - tested PH - it has gone up considerably since crush. (keep i mind I added water yesterday which contributed to this)  It is not too high yet - lets see where we end up and try not to add anything.

2. First day of major fermentation should be today - keep temperature under 90F is possible - should not be too bad for the yeast becuase alcohol will not be high yet.  When alcohol is high, yeast manufacturer says to keep temp under 82F.  Today or tomorrow would like to the temp above 85F for best extraction of flavor.  Will keep under 82F from then on.
DONE - now starting a slow cool off period for the fermentation - gradually bring it down and keep the ambient temp in the 70-74F range (fermentation will run hotter than that due to it putting off its own heat).

3. Punch down the cap three times: 8am, 6pm, 11pm.


Day 5 [Thursday- Sept 20th 2007]
- 7:45 am: cap temperature: 83F
- 7:45 am: fermenter temperature: 77F.

- 7:45 am: punched down the cap
- 7:45 am: cap has grown large - looks as if fermentation is at its peak. Suprisingly not to terrible smelling around the fermenter - the Merlot this year was much stronger smelling during this phase (but it fermented much faster).
- 7:45 am: ambient temperature: 68.5F.  Going to keep it low to start to slowly cool down the must. (space heater off)
- 7:45 am: sampled juice for pH test

 pH (de-gassed via shaking)
 pH (de-gassed via heating in microwave)


So it seems that it does not matter too much how you de-gas the sample  (if it matters at all for pH).  Left image is de-gased via shaking/swirling many times.  The image on the right is de-gassed via heating in microwave for 15 seconds.

- 7:45 am: tested BRIX

 BRIX degrees14.5 

BRIX have dropped by half in 4 days (started at 26.5 - half would be 13.25).  Fermentation well under way.  Notice the color extraction in this image.  Wine will be quite deep in color.  This is great.

- 6:30 pm: cap temperature: 82F

Definely need to keep the temperature at this temperature or below now.  Alcohol level will start getting high and yeast selected requries temperature of 82F or less to stay alive at high alcohol levels. (per manufacturer's instructions)

- 6:30 pm: cap is still large - not diminishing at all yet

- 6:30 pm: punched down the cap
- 6:30 pm: took small sample for pH (just for fun)

 pH (degassed via shaking)

Well - at least pH is not climbing much anymore.  This is good news - it will be interesting to see where the TA ends up and compare with the pH.

- 11:30 pm: punched down the cap
- 11:30 pm: ambient temperature: 70F

Daily Plans
1. Test TA, PH, and BRIX at lab (single 60ml sample).  See where we are.  Decide if any corrections should be made.
DONE - but only tested pH and BRIX.  Will test TA either late tonight or tomorrow.

2. Make sure to keep cap temperature under 82F from this point on.  We are still dealing with high potential alcohol even after water addition.
DONE - cap temp now at 82F... will keep at or under.

3. Add a touch more DAP tonight - maybe 3/4 tsp to finish off.
Will add tomorrow


Day 6 [Friday - Sept 21st 2007]
- 8:30 am: cap temperature 81F
- 8:30 am: punched down the cap
- 8:30 am: added 3/4 tsp of DAP and mixed in
- 6:30 pm: cap temp 81F
- 6:30 pm: punched down the cap
- 1:00 am: cap temperature: 80F
- 1:00 am: punched down the cap

Daily Plans
1. Test TA, PH, and BRIX at lab
Test Tomorrow - fermentation is still going strong - no need today.

2. Add 3/4 tsp DAP

3. Keep Temperature under 82F


Day 7 [Saturday - Sept 22nd 2007]
- 9:45 am: cap temperature 78F
- 9:45 am: punched down the cap
- Tested PH and BRIX

 BRIXdegrees  5
 pH ----- 3.61

- 6:45 pm: cap tempatature: 78F
- 6:45 pm: punched down the cap


Day 8 [Sunday - Sept 23rd 2007]
- 10:45 am: cap temperature 78F
- 10:45 am: punched down the cap
- Tested PH

 pH ----- 3.63


Day 9 [Monday- Sept 24th 2007]
- 8:00 am: Punched down remaining cap - cap has diminshed greatly.
- 8:00 am: Tested BRIX


Normally, pressing would happen either tonight or tomorrow - but I plan to do an extended maceration period (extended period of time on the skins post fermentation).  Because of this, I will not press now.

- 10:00 pm: punched down the cap
- 10:00 pm: added CO2

Daily Plans
1. Test BRIX - Is it time to press?
DONE - decided to wait and perform an extended maceration period.


Day 10 [Tuesday Sept 25th 2007]
- 8:30 am: punched down remaining cap.
- 8:30 am: added CO2
- 7:45 pm: tasted - puckery / tannic - waiting daily for wine to soften.
- 7:45 pm: added CO2


Day 11 [Wednesday Sept 26th 2007]
- 8:30 am: tasted - definetly tasting good, I think I want to press tonight - it does not seem to need much more.
- 6:30 pm: got to MainBrew late - was not able to rent the press.

Daily Plans
1. Taste for softening

2. Add CO2 two times daily


Day 12 [Thursday Sept 27th 2007]
- 5:30 pm: picked up press from MainBrew
- 11:30 pm: pressed wine - only got 6.5 gallons - re-racked immediatly into a 6 gallon (6.5) gallon carboy because fermentation is basically already done - guessing that it won't be producing much more CO2 because it has been at 0 brix for a few days already - so do't want to leave any head space in 7 gallon carboy.
- 1:00 am: took sample for labratory testing.  Refrigerated.


Day 13 [Friday Sept 28th 2007]
- 10:30 am: dropped off sample at ETS in McMinnville

Chemistry Panel - ETS - McMinnville
 TA g/100ml0.77
 Residual Sugar (glucose + fructose)
g/100ml 0.02
Ethanol at 20 degrees C


Day 14 [Saturday Sept 29th 2007]
- 10:30 am: Looks like MLF has started even though I did not add any starter.


Day 35 [Saturday Oct 20th 2007]
- 10:30 am: MLF seems to be just about done - only a few bubbles remain around neck and only see a few random bubbles coming up the neck.


Day 37 [Monday Oct 22th 2007]
- 7:30 am: took sample of wine to ETS to test for MLF completeness.


Day 38 [Tuesday Oct 23th 2007]
- 10:30 am: Got report back vie email - MLF only 30% done.  Guess I should have inoculated with real MLF starter.

 L-Malic Acid
g / 100 ml
 TAg / 100 ml0.68

Chemistry Notes
1. MLF is NOT complete.  Will need to inoculate.

- 12:00 pm: inoculated with MLF starter (freeze dried) and added some leucofood.


Future Overall Todos
1. Rack off lees after MLF completes.